Avanish Utsav About me B.
SOIL Soil is the thin upper layer of the earth's crust which has been weathered from the parents material and decomposed animals and plants.
It determines soil type, color, depth, rate of soil formation, structure, texture, porosity and soil fertility. Parent rock influence soil Geography value of water 7, therefore hard rocks take a long time to mature while soft rocks take a short time to mature.
Shallow and poorly productive b CLIMATE The most variable elements under climate are temperature, precipitation rainfall and wind Temperature affects decomposition of organic matter hence it influences the development of soil profile Rainfall and wind encourage the formation of soil due to their role in the erosion process On the other hand rainfall adds moisture which encourages chemical and physical weathering c LIVING ORGANISM Some plants have nodules with bacteria which add nitrogen into the soil hence improve aeration of soil.
Microorganisms are active in the decomposition of the organic matter to form humus on the other hand barrowing of animals and plant roots facilitate the state of both physical and chemical weathering hence lead to the formation of soil easily. Relief influences climate and vegetation.
The most important aspect of topography in soil formation, steep slopes areas soils are shallow due to erosion while on a gentle slopes and low land areas soils are deep due to deposition of materials.
Time determines the maturity of soil, when soil formation has taken a long time, soil tends to be mature i. For example Titanum is obtained from soil deposit of Kwale near Mombasa in Kenya Bauxite, which is mined in Guinea in West Africa iv Cultural and medicinal values Some soils are cultural value in some communities e.
This forms humus as a result of decomposition of animals and plant remains. Minerals constitute several nutrients which are needed by plants.
It is derived essentially from rainfall especially from infiltration and through flow. It consists of the soil atmosphere from which plants and soil organisms obtain oxygen for their metabolism and dispose of carbon dioxide and other gases. A- horizon Is the topmost layer and can include organic matter to form humus.
It is in this place where leaching process takes place. C- horizon Is the partially weathered parent rock from which the soil develops, it is underlined the D horizon which is the fresh [un weathered] parent rock.
D-horizon Bedrock It is the un weathered parent rock. Maturity is influenced by the nature of the rock as well as duration of the soil forming processes which have been operating. Soil depth is important for agricultural activities.
Thus deep soil is important for agricultural activities while shallow soil is not good for cultivation. It varies from one place to another. Soil color can be classified and described in terms of; a Dark [ black, grey, dark brown etc ] and cinnamon b Bright [ yellow, orange, red, reddish brown and yellow brown ] c Light [ white, whitish grey] 4.
It can also be referred to as variations in the particle size, caliber or mechanical composition According to the soil texture, soil can be classified as; a Coarse sand 2 to 0.
Soil porosity is mainly influenced by soil texture, organic matter, soil structure, individual undisturbed soil aggregate compounds referred to as peds. Individual undistributed soil aggregate referred to as peds. Thus plant growth and decomposition tend to be fast in warm areas and slow in cold areas, this is due to the fact that growth cells and micro organisms tend to be very active in the warm areas unlike in the cold areas where they tend to be inactive or less active.
In extremely hot areas and cold areas may not support the survival of animals and other micro organisms 3 It controls the amount of moisture in the soil where there is high evaporation soil moisture is less or the soils are dry B: Soil reaction soil PH This is the term used to describe the degree of acidity and alkalinity in the soil and it is related mainly to climate.
This degree of acidity and alkalinity is expressed in the PH value which is the measure in terms of hydrogen ions concentration held by the soil colloid. Soil PH scale range from 1 to 14 where ph 7 is neutral, the condition below 7 is acidic while the condition above 7 is alkalinity which means it has more alkalis.
The formation of soil is mainly initiated by weathering process. There are several factors which influence soil formation these are as follows: For example Titanum is obtained from soil deposit of Kwale near Mombasa in Kenya Bauxitewhich is mined in Guinea in West Africa iv Cultural and medicinal values Some soils are cultural value in some communities e.
One common classification is that based on texture. According to the soil texture triangle, there are three main texture namely sand, silt and clay. This is based on the size of their particles as discussed earlier.
There percentage content of each one of these determines the type of soil according to texture. This soil consists mainly of course and fine sand and contain very little among of clay such that it not sticky when wet and is lose when dry, percentage of sand is above 85, that of clay is up to 10 and silt is up to When such soil is rubber, it does not leave any film on the figures.
This consists most of sand but with sufficient clay such that it gives it a slight plastic quality when it is very moist. It moulds easily when it is sufficiently moist but does not stick easily to the figures.Mar 22, · Geographical Investigation of Water Quality it is ph value of water.
Delete. Reply. Lily Lee September 14, at AM. This blog is a sharing of the workshops and seminars which I have attended for Geography as well as some of the practices which I have adopted.
The elements of maritime geography are loosely defined and their meanings have changed throughout history. The USA's Naval Operations Concept defines blue water as "the open ocean", green water as "coastal waters, ports and harbors", and brown water as "navigable rivers and their estuaries".
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Figure 8a The atomic structure of a water (or dihydrogen monoxide) molecule consists of two hydrogen (H) atoms joined to one oxygen (O) ashio-midori.com unique way in which the hydrogen atoms are attached to the oxygen atom causes one side of the molecule to have a negative charge and the area in the opposite direction to have a positive charge.