Discuss issues of bias in diagnostic

Availability heuristic Diagnosis of current patient biased by experience with past cases A patient with crushing chest pain was incorrectly treated for a myocardial infarction, despite indications that an aortic dissection was present. Anchoring heuristic premature closure Relying on initial diagnostic impression, despite subsequent information to the contrary Repeated positive blood cultures with Corynebacterium were dismissed as contaminants; the patient was eventually diagnosed with Corynebacterium endocarditis. Framing effects Diagnostic decision-making unduly biased by subtle cues and collateral information A heroin-addicted patient with abdominal pain was treated for opiate withdrawalbut proved to have a bowel perforation. Blind obedience Placing undue reliance on test results or "expert" opinion A false-negative rapid test for Streptococcus pharyngitis resulted in a delay in diagnosis.

Discuss issues of bias in diagnostic

Availability heuristic Diagnosis of current patient biased by experience with past cases A patient with crushing chest pain was incorrectly treated for a myocardial infarction, despite indications that an aortic dissection was present.

Discuss issues of bias in diagnostic systems - A-Level Psychology - Marked by ashio-midori.com

Anchoring heuristic premature closure Relying on initial diagnostic impression, despite subsequent information to the contrary Repeated positive blood cultures with Corynebacterium were dismissed as contaminants; the patient was eventually diagnosed with Corynebacterium endocarditis.

Framing effects Diagnostic decision-making unduly biased by subtle cues and collateral information A heroin-addicted patient with abdominal pain was treated for opiate withdrawalbut proved to have a bowel perforation.

Blind obedience Placing undue reliance on test results or "expert" opinion A false-negative rapid test for Streptococcus pharyngitis resulted in a delay in diagnosis. While cognitive biases on the part of individual clinicians play a role in many diagnostic errors, underlying health care system problems also contribute to missed and delayed diagnoses.

Missed or delayed diagnoses particularly cancer diagnoses are a prominent reason for malpractice claims, and much of the research into systems causes of diagnostic error arises from studies of closed malpractice claims in primary carepediatricsemergency medicineand surgery.

Poor teamwork and communication between clinicians have been identified as predisposing factors for diagnostic error in emergency medicine and surgery.

Lack of reliable systems for common outpatient clinical situations, such as triaging acutely ill patients by telephone and following up on test resultsalso increases the likelihood of diagnostic error.

Preventing Diagnostic Errors Given that many diagnostic errors are caused by subtle biases in clinicians' thought processes, some diagnostic errors may be prevented by systems to mitigate the effect of these biases and provide physicians with objective information to assist with decision-making.

Clinicians are frequently unaware of diagnostic errors that they have committed, particularly if they do not have an opportunity to see how their diagnoses turned out over time. Therefore, regular feedback to clinicians on their diagnostic performance is essential. Unfortunately, reliable decision support or feedback systems do not yet exist.

One of the earliest uses of information technology in medicine was decision support for clinical diagnosis, particularly for notoriously high-risk and difficult diagnoses such as acute myocardial infarction.

However, computerized diagnostic decision support has not yet been proven to improve overall diagnostic accuracy, although active research continues in this area. The autopsy has been the "gold standard" for diagnosis since medicine became a profession, but autopsy rates have progressively declined over the past few decades, to the point where a recent editorial raised concern over the " vanishing nonforensic autopsy.

More progress has been made in addressing systems causes of diagnostic error. Information technology has improved clinicians' ability to follow up on diagnostic tests in a timely fashion, which should reduce the incidence of delayed diagnoses.

Structured protocols for telephone triageteamwork and communication trainingand increased supervision of trainees may also lead to improved diagnostic performance.

However, studies evaluating the effect of these interventions on diagnostic error rates are lacking. Finally, there are aggressive efforts to teach clinicians and trainees about the relevant parts of cognitive psychology. The principal goal is to engage clinicians in "meta-cognition" reflecting on their own thinkingwith the hope that they will catch some of their own misuse of heuristics before they cause harm.

Discuss issues of bias in diagnostic

A systematic review found evidence that these strategies can improve clinicians' diagnostic reasoning in simulated settings. Recent systematic reviews have assessed the evidence base of interventions to prevent cognitive errors and systems problems that can lead to diagnostic error.

Current Context The National Academy of Medicine formerly the Institute of Medicine released a report in describing diagnostic error as a blind spot in the safety field.

The committee made several recommendations to improve diagnosis, including promoting teamwork among interdisciplinary health care teams, enhancing patient engagement in the diagnostic process, implementing large-scale error reporting systems with feedback and corrective action, and improving health information technology.

The report also recommended health care system reforms, including establishing a work system and safety culture that foster timely and accurate diagnosis, improving the medical liability system to foster learning from missed or delayed diagnoses, reforming the payment system to support better diagnosis, and increasing funding for research in diagnostic safety.

Another challenge for addressing diagnostic error is the lack of measures of diagnostic accuracy. In fact, current quality measurements do not take diagnostic accuracy into account at all, meaning that organizations could score well on quality measures even if patients receive the correct treatment for an incorrect diagnosis.Discuss cultural and ethical considerations in diagnosis Culture may influence psychiatric diagnosis in several ways.

Already a member?

1. Different cultural groups have different attitudes to psychological disorders that might influence the reporting of symptoms and diagnosis (e.g. due to stigmatization). 2.

Discuss issues of bias in diagnostic systems - A-Level Psychology - Marked by ashio-midori.com

Cultural bias in diagnosis (i.e. the clinician does not observe certain symptoms because he or she . Gender-bias in medical diagnosis. Jump to navigation Jump to search. This article has multiple issues.

Discuss issues of bias in diagnostic

Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article needs additional. Issues of diagnosis centres around gender, ethnicity and social class, and these groups were brought to attention by people such as Rack () who said there are biases in the way doctors diagnose illness - Discuss Issues of Bias in Diagnostic Systems Essay introduction.

Illnesses can be diagnosed through two main classification systems known as DSM and ICM. Preventing Diagnostic Errors. Given that many diagnostic errors are caused by subtle biases in clinicians' thought processes, some diagnostic errors may be prevented by systems to mitigate the effect of these biases and provide physicians with objective information to assist with decision-making.

Discuss issues of bias in diagnostic systems If we consider abnormality as deviating from the norm, then what would we consider being?normal??

Certain behaviours are expected from us at certain times and in certain situations, and if those expectations are not met, then the behaviour and the person may be judged as being?bad?

or?sick?. Jun 06,  · Discuss issues in the classification and diagnosis of schizophrenia (24 marks) The main tool of measurement to classify and diagnose schizophrenia is the Diagnostic .

Discuss Issues of Bias in Diagnostic Systems Essay Example | Graduateway