Overview[ edit ] In applying statistics to a problem, it is common practice to start with a population or process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all persons living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Ideally, statisticians compile data about the entire population an operation called census. This may be organized by governmental statistical institutes.
Learn how to collect your data and analyze it, figuring out what it means, so that you can use it to draw some conclusions about your work.
What do we mean by collecting data? What do we mean by analyzing data? Why should you collect and analyze data for your evaluation? When and by whom should data be collected and analyzed? How do you collect and analyze data?
Essentially, collecting data means putting your design for collecting information into operation. Some of the things you might do with the information you collect include: How you do this will depend on your research design and your evaluation questions. You might group observations by the dependent variable indicator of success they relate to, by individuals or groups of participants, by time, by activity, etc.
You might also want to group observations in several different ways, Collected data for statistics that you can study interactions among different variables.
There are two kinds of variables in research. An independent variable the intervention is a condition implemented by the researcher or community to see if it will create change and improvement. This could be a program, method, system, or other action.
A dependent variable is what may change as a result of the independent variable or intervention. A dependent variable could be a behavior, outcome, or other condition. Analyzing information involves examining it in ways that reveal the relationships, patterns, trends, etc.
It may mean comparing your information to that from other groups a control or comparison group, statewide figures, etc. Quantitative data refer to the information that is collected as, or can be translated into, numbers, which can then be displayed and analyzed mathematically.
Qualitative data are collected as descriptions, anecdotes, opinions, quotes, interpretations, etc. As you might expect, quantitative and qualitative information needs to be analyzed differently. Quantitative data Quantitative data are typically collected directly as numbers.
The frequency rate, duration of specific behaviors or conditions Test scores e. Numbers or percentages of people with certain characteristics in a population diagnosed with diabetes, unemployed, Spanish-speaking, under age 14, grade of school completed, etc.
Researchers can count the number of times an event is documented in interviews or records, for instance, or assign numbers to the levels of intensity of an observed event or behavior. For instance, community initiatives often want to document the amount and intensity of environmental changes they bring about — the new programs and policies that result from their efforts.
Quantitative data is usually subjected to statistical procedures such as calculating the mean or average number of times an event or behavior occurs per day, month, year.
Various kinds of quantitative analysis can indicate changes in a dependent variable related to — frequency, duration, timing when particular things happenintensity, level, etc. They can allow you to compare those changes to one another, to changes in another variable, or to changes in another population.
They might be able to tell you, at a particular degree of reliability, whether those changes are likely to have been caused by your intervention or program, or by another factor, known or unknown.
And they can identify relationships among different variables, which may or may not mean that one causes another. A number may tell you how well a student did on a test; the look on her face after seeing her grade, however, may tell you even more about the effect of that result on her.
And that interpretation may be far more valuable in helping that student succeed than knowing her grade or numerical score on the test. Qualitative data can sometimes be changed into numbers, usually by counting the number of times specific things occur in the course of observations or interviews, or by assigning numbers or ratings to dimensions e.
The challenges of translating qualitative into quantitative data have to do with the human factor. Furthermore, the numbers say nothing about why people reported the way they did. One may dislike the program because of the content, the facilitator, the time of day, etc.
Where one person might see a change in program he considers important another may omit it due to perceived unimportance. It is often helpful to collect both quantitative and qualitative information.
Quantitative analysis is considered to be objective — without any human bias attached to it — because it depends on the comparison of numbers according to mathematical computations. Be aware, however, that quantitative analysis is influenced by a number of subjective factors as well.
Part of the answer here is that not every organization — particularly small community-based or non-governmental ones — will necessarily have extensive resources to conduct a formal evaluation.
They may have to be content with less formal evaluations, which can still be extremely helpful in providing direction for a program or intervention. An informal evaluation will involve some data gathering and analysis. This data collection and sensemaking is critical to an initiative and its future success, and has a number of advantages.How the data are collected Communicable Disease Act: 20 ILCS Jump to navigation.
Search. Protecting health, improving lives. Home» Data & Statistics» Syndromic Surveillance» Data Collection. Data Collection. How the data are collected. Communicable Disease Act: 20 ILCS ;. Data and Statistics information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A . Data can also be collected in forms other than numbers, and turned into quantitative data for analysis.
Researchers can count the number of times an event is documented in interviews or records, for instance, or assign numbers to the levels of intensity of an observed event or behavior. Data Source and Methods: Inpatient records from a national sample of non-Federal short stay hospitals; electronic data files from commercial organizations, State data .
Find Data and Statistics from the Government. These federal agency programs collect, analyze, and disseminate statistical data and information: Bureau of Economic Analysis collects information on economic indicators, national and international trade, accounts, and industry. Oct 20, · Here you will find a wide range of tables, articles, and data that describe and measure elements of the U.S.
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