PAGE 9 2 Chapter 1: Government can be defined as the institutions and processes that make and implement authoritative decisions for a so ciety. The government unit can be a city, county, state, regional, national, or inte rnational government. The decisions, which include laws, regulations, and other public policie s, are authoritative in the sense that individuals and organizations are legally obligated to obey the decisions or face some kind of sanction.
Native America Revisited," pp. It has continued ever since. What preceded his arrival--the prehistoric phase of Native Americans--has generally been left to archaeologists and anthropologists to decipher and explain from physical remains.
The initial contact, post-contact, and contemporary phases are the realm of historians, who write in keeping with longstanding conventions of their own trade. In both instances, facts, dates, and interpretation generally are presented from an Anglo American perspective that has evolved over centuries.
What this has meant to the Indian people is that rarely, if ever, has their view been predominant, if it has even been known. Calvin Martin, a noted Indian historian, put it this way: To ignore the Indian thoughtworld is to continue writing about ourselves to ourselves"1 This has been especially true until recently.
Within the last twenty-five years, there has been a perceptible shift in the tide of writing that now insists on a more balanced treatment of the Indians' view of events.
However, this is at times a difficult thing to achieve. Native Americans in the past have been slow to come forth with their own story for a number of reasons, including fear of retribution, a desire to leave the past behind, reticence to speak as an individual for a group, and the belief that certain events are sacred, personal, and not to be divulged for public view.
Whatever the reason, when one considers how much has been produced about these people, there are relatively few tribal histories written or sanctioned by Native Americans. Each author has used both written and oral sources to tell the story of the tribes living within the boundaries of Utah.
The tribal histories are complex, as they speak of persistence and change, the past and the present, diversity and unity. What will be recognized early on is that there are common threads woven throughout each tribal account; but these may assume a different cultural pattern.
Thus, each group enjoys a distinct identity. Among the most prominent of these threads is a religious worldview that ties these people of Utah to a living, sentient creation.
Their world is one of power, filled with holy beings who either help or hinder those who interact with them. Unlike most Anglo Americans, who separate themselves from a world they divide into animate and inanimate objects, the Indian worldview sees the land as an interconnected whole--with rocks, trees, animals, water, clouds, and a host of other participants in a circle of life.
Navajo women taking their sheep to water in Monument Valley An example provided by the Navajo illustrates this type of connection between the land and its creatures, a characteristic viewpoint shared by all of Utah's tribes. To the Navajo, deer were animals treated and hunted with respect.
They were controlled by certain gods who made them available for man's use. Before leaving for the hunt, men participated in a sweat bath to purify themselves and to encourage the holy beings to give them the best meat.
|Era of Good Feelings - WikiVisually||McPherson and Mary Jane Yazzie Billy Mike, the oldest living resident of the White Mesa Ute community, sat comfortably and slowly ran his fingers through his silver hair. The thick glasses perched upon his nose served more as a token of past vision than as an aid to see today's world.|
Ritualized behavior circumscribed the hunt, making the act of killing a deer a sacred event recognized as good by both the animal and the gods.The entire wikipedia with video and photo galleries for each article. Find something interesting to watch in seconds.
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The Cable Act was amended, regaining American citizenship for Nisei women who had married Issei men; and American citizenship was granted to World War I veterans.
In Utah, legislation in reduced license fees for Issei from twelve dollars to three, the same as for citizens. The Progressive Era Was a Rapidly Changing Time Period in America - The Progressive Era was the period from s to the s.
This historical movement was fueled by the middle class (e.g. doctors, lawyers, teachers); mainly those living in the cities.