Same Sex Unions Same Sex Unions The question of same-sex unions and their legitimacy in many different societies is a topic that has been hotly debated for centuries. One society in particular is pre-modern Europe. Noted author and historian Dr.
There is a wealth of material from ancient Greece pertinent to issues of sexuality, ranging from dialogues of Plato, such as the Symposium, to plays by Aristophanes, and Greek artwork and vases.
What follows is a brief description of ancient Greek attitudes, but it is important to recognize that there was regional variation. For example, in parts of Ionia there were general strictures against same-sex eros, while in Elis and Boiotia e.
Dover, ; Halperin, Probably the most frequent assumption of sexual orientation is that persons can respond erotically to beauty in either sex. Diogenes Laeurtius, for example, wrote of Alcibiades, the Athenian general and politician of the 5th century B.
For example, Alexander the Great and the founder of Stoicism, Zeno of Citium, were known for their exclusive interest in boys and other men. Such persons, however, are generally portrayed as the exception. Furthermore, the issue of what gender one is attracted to is seen as an issue of taste or preference, rather than as a moral issue.
Even though the gender that one was erotically attracted to at any specific time, given the assumption that persons will likely be attracted to persons of both sexes was not important, other issues were salient, such as whether one exercised moderation.
Status concerns were also of the highest importance. Given that only free men had full status, women and male slaves were not problematic sexual partners. Sex between freemen, however, was problematic for status. The central distinction in ancient Greek sexual relations was between taking an active or insertive role, versus a passive or penetrated one.
The passive role was acceptable only for inferiors, such as women, slaves, or male youths who were not yet citizens.
In this relationship there was courtship ritual, involving gifts such as a roosterand other norms. The erastes had to show that he had nobler interests in the boy, rather than a purely sexual concern. The boy was not to submit too easily, and if pursued by more than one man, was to show discretion and pick the more noble one.
There is also evidence that penetration was often avoided by having the erastes face his beloved and place his penis between the thighs of the eromenos, which is known as intercrural sex.
The relationship was to be temporary and should end upon the boy reaching adulthood Dover, To continue in a submissive role even while one should be an equal citizen was considered troubling, although there certainly were many adult male same-sex relationships that were noted and not strongly stigmatized.
While the passive role was thus seen as problematic, to be attracted to men was often taken as a sign of masculinity. Greek gods, such as Zeus, had stories of same-sex exploits attributed to them, as did other key figures in Greek myth and literature, such as Achilles and Hercules.
Plato, in the Symposium, argues for an army to be comprised of same-sex lovers. Thebes did form such a regiment, the Sacred Band of Thebes, formed of soldiers. They were renowned in the ancient world for their valor in battle. Ancient Rome had many parallels in its understanding of same-sex attraction, and sexual issues more generally, to ancient Greece.
This is especially true under the Republic. Yet under the Empire, Roman society slowly became more negative in its views towards sexuality, probably due to social and economic turmoil, even before Christianity became influential.culture key the baby sleep book complete guide to a good nights rest for whole test answers system analysis and design notes one fish two red blue dr seuss same sex unions in premodern europe john boswell module 2 borrowing answers.
Noted author and historian Dr. John Boswell looks extensively at the topic of same-sex unions in his book Same Sex Unions in Premodern Europe. Dr.
Boswell argues extensively in his book that the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches not only sanctioned unions between partners of . Read e-book online Same-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe PDF. February 23, admin Catholicism.
By John Boswell. Either hugely praised and extremely arguable, this excellent publication produces dramatic proof that at one time the Catholic and japanese Orthodox church buildings not just sanctioned unions among companions of a similar.
Before an analysis of the Same Sex Unions in Premodern Europe can be evaluated, it's important to know a little about the author himself and what he stood for. Dr. Boswell was a professor at Yale University and Chairman of Yale's history department for many years.
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same-sex unions in premodern europe - review by dr. horvat - Critique of the thesis that homosexuality was accepted and tolerated in the Middle Ages, as purported by the book 'Same-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe'.